An Intersectional Approach to Retirement Expectations and Timing

Racial and ethnic health disparities and gaps in retirement wealth play an important role in retirement timing. Gendered differences in retirement timing/preparedness may also differ by race and ethnicity. Furthermore, educational and occupational level are important backdrops in considering gender,…

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Changes in the Composition of Disability Insurance Applicants and Recipients in the Wake of the Coronavirus Epidemic

Despite concerns that the enormous economic and health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic would increase Social Security disability benefit claiming, applications dropped during the first nine months of the pandemic. This paper uses Social Security Administration data on new program…

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Risk of Large Medical Expenditures at Older Ages and Their Impact on Economic Well-being

We study out-of-pocket (OOP) medical expenditure risk of the U.S. population ages 55 and older using data from the Health and Retirement Study and its supplemental survey on household spending. We document trends in individual-level OOP spending from 1998 to…

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Work and Retirement of Older Black and Hispanic Adults

Growing U.S. income inequality and the aging of Black and Hispanic populations point to greater risks of financial insecurity for older populations in coming years. Research on retirement determinants for Blacks and Hispanics is limited. Using data from the Health…

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The Dynamic Effects of Health on the Employment of Older Workers: Impacts by Gender, Country, and Race

Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we estimate the impact of health on employment. Estimating the model separately by race and gender, we find that racial differences in employment…

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