2021

Mixed-methods Study to Understand Use of the my Social Security Online Platform

WP 2021-428 , UM21-08
We conducted a mixed-methods study to examine barriers to use of my Social Security (MySSA), and users’ experience of using MySSA. The quantitative phase of the study leveraged existing survey data to analyze the determinants of self-reported MySSA account use.…

Contextual and Social Predictors of Scam Susceptibility and Fraud Victimization

WP 2021-429 , UM21-15
Financial fraud targeting older adults is on the rise, with annual losses totaling in the billions of dollars. Prior cross-sectional and qualitative studies have reported that negative life events and social factors, such as poor psychological well-being and loneliness, are…

Worker Functional Abilities, Occupational Requirements, and Job Accommodations: A Close Look at Three Occupations

WP 2021-430 , UM21-04
This report examines the occupational requirements, physical and mental functioning, and use of accommodations among workers in three key occupations: cashiers, receptionists, and those in nursing fields. These jobs are among the top occupations represented in the work histories of…

Expansion of the Totalization Program using Simplified Agreements to Eliminate Dual Taxation

WP 2021-431 , UM21-Q2
The United States has signed 30 bilateral social security agreements. Some of its partner countries, such as the U.K. or Germany, have signed international agreements to eliminate double taxation for nationals working temporarily abroad with more than 50 other countries.…

Estimating the Impact of Missing Totalization Agreements

WP 2021-432 , UM21-Q4
The number of international social security agreements (totalization agreements) signed by the United States is significantly smaller than the number signed by other countries such as Canada and the U.K. This paper estimates the impact of the missing totalization agreements…

The Lifetime Risk of Spousal Nursing Home Use and its Economic Impact on the Community-dwelling Spouse

WP 2021-433 , UM21-12
A single person in a nursing home is relatively well-protected financially from nursing home expenses because Medicaid covers these once assets are depleted. Couples, however, are less well protected, because the high cost of nursing homes rapidly depletes household assets,…

Mixed-methods Analysis of Consumer Fraud Reports of the Social Security Administration Impostor Scam

WP 2021-434 , UM21-Q1
Most Americans have received fraudulent calls from impostors claiming to be officials from the Social Security Administration (SSA). Callers threaten those who respond with arrest and suspension of their bank accounts and Social Security numbers, but charges can be removed…

The Relationship Between Adverse Experiences Over the Life Course and Early Retirement Due to Disability

WP 2021-435 , UM21-07
A growing body of research implicates life span adversity in later-life outcomes. We use data from the Life History Mail Survey (LHMS) with data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) core surveys to examine the relationship between adverse experiences…

On the Distribution and Dynamics of Medical Expenditure Among the Elderly

WP 2021-436 , UM19-11
Using data from the Health and Retirement Study linked to administrative Medicare and Medicaid records along with the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimate the stochastic process for total and out-of-pocket medical spending. By focusing on dynamics, we consider not…

The Role of Physical Job Demands and the Physical Work Environment in Retirement Outcomes

WP 2021-437 , UM21-05
We provide new evidence on the role of physical job demands and the physical work environment on retirement outcomes by linking occupation-level data on job requirements from the Occupational Requirements Survey (ORS) to individual-level data from the Health and Retirement…
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