2022

Gendered Impacts of COVID-19 on Economic and Retirement Security

WP 2022-447 , UM22-08
The COVID-19 pandemic had severe impacts on the U.S. labor market with particularly large effects on working women. We use longitudinal survey data from a nationally representative internet panel to (1) document the pandemic’s gendered effects on employment and short-term…

The Role of Physical, Cognitive, and Interpersonal Occupational Requirements and Working Conditions on Disability and Retirement

WP 2022-448 , UM22-04
We examine of the role of physical and mental job requirements, as well as hazardous working conditions, on retirement and disability among older individuals in the United States. By linking occupation-level data on job requirements from the Occupational Requirements Survey…

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Knowledge about Social Security Programs

WP 2022-449 , UM22-14
Imperfect knowledge of public programs influences use and can lead to suboptimal decisions. We quantify significant disparities in Social Security program knowledge across race and ethnic groups. Differences in knowledge are not explained by differences in income, wealth, employment history,…

The Impacts of the Social Security Statement Redesign on People’s Knowledge and Behavioral Intentions: A Survey Experiment

WP 2022-450 , UM22-Q2
Social Security information can be complex but is crucial for financial planning. The Social Security Statement, which was recently redesigned, aims to better inform the public. We assess the impact of the Statement’s redesign on people’s understanding of Social Security,…

The Dynamic Effects of Health on the Employment of Older Workers: Impacts by Gender, Country, and Race

WP 2022-451 , UM22-13
Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we estimate the impact of health on employment. Estimating the model separately by race and gender, we find that racial differences in employment…

Work and Retirement of Older Black and Hispanic Adults

WP 2022-452 , UM22-16
Growing U.S. income inequality and the aging of Black and Hispanic populations point to greater risks of financial insecurity for older populations in coming years. Research on retirement determinants for Blacks and Hispanics is limited. Using data from the Health…

Risk of Large Medical Expenditures at Older Ages and Their Impact on Economic Well-being

WP 2023-457 , UM22-09
We study out-of-pocket (OOP) medical expenditure risk of the U.S. population ages 55 and older using data from the Health and Retirement Study and its supplemental survey on household spending. We document trends in individual-level OOP spending from 1998 to…

2021

Public Pension Design and Household Retirement Decisions: A Comparison of the United States and Germany

WP 2021-417 , UM19-13
Social Security provides retirement benefits to age-eligible workers and their spouses. Benefits are permanently increased if initial receipt is delayed. For benefits paid to spouses, these incentives reflect a complex interaction of the worker’s and spouse’s earnings histories, benefit claiming…

The Causes and Consequences of Opioid Use among Older Americans: A Panel Survey Approach

WP 2021-419 , UM20-14
This study examines the effects of prescription opioid analgesic use for older Americans, specifically with regard to work disability and disability program participation. We draw on the long-panel structure of the Health and Retirement Study and a newly available 2009…

Underfunded Public Sector Pension Plans, Social Security Participation, and the Retirement Decisions of Public Employees

WP 2021-420 , UM20-05
I analyze the effects of public pension parameters, Social Security coverage, and state pension fund sustainability on the retirement of public employees. I use data from the Health and Retirement Study, including personal early and normal retirement eligibility and state…
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