The Effects of Totalization Agreements on Economic Activity

Published: 2019
Project ID: UM19-Q1


The United States has signed international Social Security agreements, i.e. totalization agreements, with 30 countries in Europe, Asia, and South America. Totalization agreements have several benefits for persons who work in a foreign country during part of their careers. A totalization agreement mainly avoids dual contributions to the Social Security of the United States and of the other countries and it reduces the risk of not meeting eligibility requirements such as the minimum number of years of contributions.

The goal of this project is to investigate the economic effects of totalization agreements. In particular, we aim to answer the question: “What is the effect of totalization agreements on capital investment, trade, and labor markets?”