To Roth or not to Roth: Taxing retirement plan contributions instead of payouts

Tax-deferred retirement savings plans include independent retirement accounts (IRAs) and employer-sponsored 401(k), 457, and 403(b) plans. These “save now, pay taxes later” plans mean a saver won’t pay income taxes on their contributions. Instead, they pay income taxes when they…

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Social Security Wealth, Inequality, and Life-cycle Saving: An Update

Social Security wealth (SSW) is the present value of future benefits an individual will receive less the present value of future taxes they will pay. When an individual enters the labor force, they generally face a lifetime of taxes to…

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Social Security Wealth, Inequality, and Life-cycle Saving

Household wealth inequality in the U.S. has been rising, but those measures do not include Social Security. For individual Social Security participants, Social Security Wealth (SSW) is equal to the present value of future benefits less the present value of…

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