UM23-11: Social Security’s Role in Economic Security: Evidence and Insight from an Analysis of Multiprogram Participation



We estimate individual participation in 18 separate spending programs and construct measures of nonparticipation and density of participation (which we call multiprogram participation) by age, race, ethnicity, and gender groups. We then use regression analysis to predict non- and multiprogram participation and identify the importance of Social Security income.

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